Guest Lecture No. 1 (11-01--99)

Dr. Barney Maddox holds a B.S. in biology from Texas Christian University and an M.D. from UTSW Medical School in Dallas.  His residency in urology was done through the University of Missouri, and he now is in private practice.  In 1997 Dr. Maddox was a committee member on the Texas State Schoolbook Panel, for biology.

by Barney T. Maddox, M.D.
COPYRIGHT 1992 By Barney T. Maddox, M.D.
Published by Creation Evidence Museum, Glen Rose, Texas

The theory of evolution proposes over long periods of time, that species of animals can change into different species.  If one imagines gradual positive progress of change from bacteria to fish to man (an essential article of faith for the evolutionists), then trillions of positive changes must occur in organisms.  Furthermore, these positive changes (mutations) must occur in the genetic material (DNA) of organisms for that change to be passed on from generation to generation.  Genetic information (DNA) codes for each species of animal, and that information is remarkably complicated, integrated, and specific for thousands of characteristics of each organism.

Another article of faith for the atheist evolution is that these genetic changes (mutations) leading to new species are not only positive (survival-enhancing), but random (since there is no Guiding Hand).  The late Carl Sagan recently summed it up by stating that "over vast amounts of time, there was a slow random accumulation of favorable mutations."

But the overwhelming problem for evolutionists is that any random change in a complex, specific, functioning system wrecks that system.  And living things are the most complex functional system in the universe.

DNA is information, or language, that codes for and describes the specific animal.  Think about it.  Any random change in a sentence or paragraph wrecks the whole system.  Imagine trying to randomly (or even directionally) evolve one simple sentence to another through functional intermediates.  It's impossible.

Take the following example:









(random mutations)








(directed mutations)










Whether the changes are random, or directed, notice that all the intermediate sentences are non-functional.  Non-function for an animal, whether in a gene or an anatomic structure, means death , not improvement, as we shall see.  And just to get from one simple, functional nine-part sentence and randomly change it into another functional nine-part sentence would require 26 to the ninth power = 5.42 trillion trials.  This is hopelessly absurd.

Mutations are just such random changes in the DNA, or genetic material of organisms, and evolution, to succeed in producing higher animal forms, requires that mutations be positive (enhance function and survival).

But scientific observation directly contradicts evolutionary theory.  The vast, vast majority of genetic mutations are usually lethal (as our theoretical exercise would predict), or at least crippling to the organism, drastically damaging survival and function.  A few examples in humans include Trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), polycystic kidney disease, and cystic fibrosis.

Until the last few years, when the Human Genom Project pinned mutations down to the gene and even the nucleotide level in DNA, evolutionists could take comfort in the fact that mutations were not very well quantitated as a percent of DNA actually changed.  The human Genome Project, assembled in 1988, is a worldwide cooperative effort by genetic researchers to completely decode the entire human genome (all 46 chromosomes) right down to the nucleotide monomer (individual building block molecule) sequence.  Out of 50,000 to 100,000 genes in the human genome, 2000 genes have been completely sequenced.  The precise mutations (point nucleotide changes) in some fatal hereditary diseases have been determined, and the news is fatal to the theory of evolution.

Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease affecting about 2000 American babies each year.  Afflicted children have mucous plugging defects in the lungs, leading to severe, recurring pneumonia, and pancreatic insufficiency.  Without medical therapy cystic fibrosis is fatal by age 10, even with excellent care, most patients will die before age 30.

Cystic fibrosis is caused by tiny (point) mutations in chromosome 7, leading to deletion of a single amino acid in as=m ion transport protein, 1,480 amino acids long.  The total nucleotide monomer content of the human genome is at least 3 billion nucleotides, all very specifically interdependent in unimaginably complex ways.  The cystic fibrosis genetic mutation involves a random change of not more than 3 nucleotides.

  The important point is that science has now quantitated that a genetic mutation of as little as 1 billionth (.0000001%) of an animal's genome is relentlessly fatal!

Now the genetic difference between human and his "nearest relative," the chimpanzee, is at least 1.6%.  That doesn't sound like much, but calculated out, that is a gap of at least 48 million nucleotide differences that must be bridged by random changes.  And a random change of only 3 nucleotides is fatal to an animal (and of course the death of a crippled mutant animal ends all possibility of further change).

Obviously there is no way to bridge even small genetic gaps successfully between animal species closely resembling each other (so called "microevolution").  And imagine macroevolutionary changes, say, just between lizard and bird!  The genetic difference is probably around 20%, involving hundreds of millions of nucleotide differences.

And this quantitative genetic information, so overtly destructive to the theory of evolution, doesn't even take into account probabilities.  The number of random trials to get from one specific 200 part system to another specific 200 part system would easily exhaust all probabilities in the universe.  Imagine how many random trials (I doubt computers could even calculate it) it would take to get form chimpanzee to human (3 billion part system)! 

The lastest quantitative genetic information is proving the theory of evolution to be the most irrational belief ever held by man.  Each animal species is separated by overwhelmingly unbridgeable genetic, anatomic and functional gaps.  This means that each individual species had to be assembled separately, just like Genesis says, by an intelligence whose chemical engineering technology is hundreds of trillions of times as advanced as ours.  There is only one word for such an intelligence: God.

In the cystic fibrosis article by Collins, et al, they allude to the human genome as a library and a blueprint.  They also refer to it as the "owner's manual."  That's not quite correct.  The human genome is the "Manufacturer's manual".  Information can only originate from intelligence.

Given the latest genetic information about mutations, anyone who persists in believing in evolution should heed his warning:  "For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse."  Romans 1:21.